Veined Red Stone Head of a Lion, Ptolemaic / Early Roman, ca. 2nd Century BCE - 2nd Century CE. Ex: James William McChesney, Nefane, NY (1820 - 1897 CE) Sold at auction Christie's New York. Stone is 5" x 5 1/2" x 4", On stand 9" high. In excellent condition. For similar see Metropolitan Museum collection, gallery 128, Head of a Lion, Ptolemaic Period, 400 - 300 BCE, Accession Number:2012.235. Ptolemy I Soter I, also known as Ptolemy Lagides (c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire. Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt (323–283/2 BC) and founded a dynasty which ruled it for the next three centuries, turning Egypt into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture. He assimilated some aspects of Egyptian culture, however, assuming the traditional title pharaoh in 305/4 BC. The use of the title of pharaoh was often situational: pharaoh was used for an Egyptian audience, and Basileus for a Greek audience, as exemplified by Egyptian coinage. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: 69 – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire.