From the collection of Teddy Kollek, first Mayor a a unified Jerusalem. Monumental Syro Hittite Terracotta Bowl with Two Raised Rams in relief, ca. 2000 BCE. Found in Northern Israel. 11 1/4" high x 11 1/2" diameter. Ex: Archaeological Center Ltd. Jerusalem. Geometric patterns incised around circumference of bowl. Hatching pattern on splayed foot. Palm frond between two rams. Scored pattern around lip of bowl. In very good condition. Foot repaired from original piece, and small repair to right side of bowl. See images. According to University College London regarding the Assyrian Empire builders, centuries after the collapse of the Hittite empire in the 12th century BC, the rulers of several small kingdoms in northern Syria and southeastern Turkey cast themselves as the heirs of the Great Kings of Hatti. The kings of Carchemish PGP and Melid (corresponding to the site of Arslantepe near Malatya) could proudly trace back their lineage to these prestigious ancestors while the kings of Kummuhi, the region between Carchemish and Melid known in classical times as Commagene, prominently signalled their connection by taking the names of some of the most famous rulers of the Hittite imperial period, Šuppiluliuma, Hattušili and Muwattalli. In these three kingdoms on the Euphrates, as well as in their western neighbour states of Arpadda, Hamat, Unqu (with its capital Kullania), Gurgum (with its capital Marqasa) and Que, gods such as the storm-god Tarhunzas and the goddess Kubaba who had been part of the imperial Hittite pantheon continued to be worshipped; the Luwian language of the Anatolian sub-group of the Indo-European language family and the "hieroglyphic" writing system attested since the days of the Hittite empire continued to be used; and ancient cultural traditions such as augury, the art of predicting the future by studying the behaviour of birds in the sky, continued to be practised in the region. By the first millennium BC, the population of these kingdoms was quite heterogenous, despite the prominence of the Hittite heritage. In most of these states the Aramaean, or in the coastal regions the Phoenician, languages and alphabetic scripts were used prominently, even for official monuments, highlighting the cultural and political influence of West Semitic population groups. But the Hittite traditions of old served to create a shared identity for all inhabitants of these states that transcended even state boundaries. This was so evident to the Assyrians that they used the group designation of Hatti for all these states, mirrored by the use of the term "Neo-Hittite" in modern scholarship. Rulers of these states who proved disloyal to Assyria are habitually called "evil Hittites" in the Assyrian royal inscriptions, such as for example the last independent kings of Melid, Kummuhi and Hamat - Tarhunazi, Muwatalli and Yau-bi'di respectively - in the annals of Sargon II (721-705 BC).